ELECTRONIC COMPONENT —- CAPACITOR (C)

In this article the information is related to the important and interesting electronic component called Capacitor. In the electronic terminology capacitor is represented by C. Capacitor is a energy storage component that can store the energy in the form of electrical energy. Capacitor is introduced by Michael Faraday and the SI unit of capacitance is Farad.

CAPACITOR

                   CAPACITOR   REPRESENTATION   IN   THE   CIRCUIT

 

WORKING OF A CAPACITOR

  • Capacitor works on the principle of charging of metal plates develops electric field and voltage is set up at the plates.
  • Capacitor consists of two conductor plates and they are separated by the space or dielectric medium that acts as insulator to the plates.
  • Initially the plates are the metallic conductors and they consists of electron and protons according to the atomic theory.
  • When the plates are connected to the battery and certain voltage is applied, then the free electrons on the metallic plates, move on to the plate connected to the positive terminal and creates a net negative charge on one plate. Obviously the other plate is net positively charged.
  • This ensures the charging of capacitor. The charged negative and positive plates develops  the electric field inside the plates of capacitor, and ensures that field is used to hold the charges and develops the potential difference.
  • Thus when the charged capacitor is connected to the LED or any other device, it discharges by maintaining the neutralization of charges on both the plates.

PROPERTIES AND IMPORTANCE OF CAPACITOR

  • In Capacitor the current leads behind the voltage by 90 degrees, because it takes some time for the voltage to be developed across the plates.
  • Capacitor stores the energy in the form of electric field and supply for short period of time.
  • Capacitors are the passive elements.
  • Capacitors work for both DC and AC currents.
  • Capacitors in combination with Inductors and Resistors can be used design LCR circuit and can be used for Resonance, Tuning and Selectivity purposes.
  • The equivalent Capacitance when the capacitors are connected in parallel is the sum of the capacitance of all the capacitors connected in parallel.
  • The equivalent Capacitance when the Capacitors are connected in series is the reciprocal sum of the capacitance of all the capacitors connected in series.
  • The Capacitance of a capacitor depends on the area of the plates, distance between the plates and the permeability of the dielectric medium.
  • The Capacitance of a Capacitor can be increased by

               1. Increasing the cross section area of the plates.

               2. Decreasing the distance between the Capacitor Plates.

               3. Increasing the permeability of the dielectric medium.

Thus in this way the principle of capacitor helps to store the energy in the form of electric field and helps in the development of different electronic circuits that helps to solve the different kinds of problems faced in the electronic industry and thus promote the enhancement of the capacitors with different upgraded properties and design and fulfill the need of electronic circuits and components in the electronic industry and other growing industries related to the robotic sector.

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